American Track Racing AssociationLarssyn Staley

Track Rules

1. SCOPE OF THESE RULES

1.1 These rules apply to all competitors from the time they register until all prizes have been awarded.
1.2 Any rule about a specific event will override any general rule. For example, the rule about the start of a cyclocross race takes precedence over the general rule on starts.
1.3 An organizer may use "special rules" for their event as long as they are approved, in advance by the Chief Referee.

2. DEFINITIONS

2.1 Bicycle race - a competition between people who are riding bicycles.
2.2 Invitational race - a race in which only riders who are invited by the organizer may compete.
2.3 Race Series - a sequence of race meets conducted on a regular basis at the same location or different locations that are tied together by an overall prize list.
2.4 Mass Start - a race where riders are started together or where they are expected to come together and ride as a group for at least some portion of the race.
2.5 Time Trial - An event where riders are started separately or in teams and may not ride together as a group with any riders they are not started with.
2.6 Organizer - this person is responsible for the proper organization of the bicycle race.
2.7 Technical Director - either the race organizer or a person designated by the race organizer. This person is responsible for the technical aspects and course(s) of the event.
2.8 Prize list - all places, awards, prizes and primes to be awarded to competitors.
2.9 Official - an individual appointed to oversee the conduct of the race and to ensure compliance with rules.
2.10 Racing age - a rider's age on December 31 of the current year.
2.11 Mishap - a crash, puncture, or failure of an essential part of the bicycle. Problems caused by inadequate preparation or failure to adequately tighten or fasten components to the bicycle are not mishaps.
2.12 Penalty - a punishment for infraction of the rules. Penalties may include:
- Warning - may be verbal or written
- Relegation - loss of position in the race
- Time penalty - time added to a competitor's time. Usually only applies to time trials.
- Disqualification - elimination from all placings and prizes, and elimination from any subsequent heats (if any)
- Fine - fines are permitted in races
- Suspension - Chief Referee recommends suspensions for riders
2.13 Protest - a request by a rider or team manager to have the Chief Referee review a decision, or to have the Chief Judge review the results.
2.14 Omnium - An omnium is a set of races in which riders compete for points in each event and final placings are determined by total points in all events. Different numbers of points may be given in different events. The scoring scheme shall be specified in writing prior to the start of the first race. Generally the points awarded in each event shall be 7-5-3-2-1 for first through fifth places. In case of a tie on total points, the tie will be broken in favor of the rider who has:
(a) The most first place finishes or, if still tied, the most second place finishes, etc., or if still tied;
(b)The highest placing in the last race, or the race nearest the last race of the omnium in which at least one of the tied riders placed.

3. OFFICIALS

3.1. The officials at a race may include:
Chief Referee, Assistant Referees
Chief Judge, Assistant Judges
Chief Timer, Assistant Timers
Starter
Registrar
There must always be a Chief Referee. Presence of the other types of officials depends upon the type of event.
3.2 All officials will enforce the regulations impartially.

3.5 DUTIES

3.5.1 CHIEF REFEREE

The Chief Referee shall enforce and interpret these, and any specific rules of the race. In addition, the Chief Referee shall:
- make the final decision in any case or appeal not specifically covered by these rules. Any such decision is beyond appeal.
- if necessary, alter the conditions of any race in the interest of safety, including cancellation of a race if necessary.
- make the final decision on any penalties to be imposed.
- supervise the other working officials on site.
- ensure that the organizer has fulfilled all necessary conditions to ensure a safe and fair race.
- render the final decision on any question concerning entries, including ruling on eligibility of a competitor for a given race.
- submit recommendations for suspension immediately following an event in written form. This may be delivered directly or by e-mail, fax or regular mail. Recommendations for suspension must be posted within 24 hours. Details of the recommendation must be included in the Chief Referee's Report.

3.5.2 ASSISTANT REFEREES

The assistant referees work under the direction of the Chief Referee. They will report to the Chief Referee whenever a rule infraction is observed or when otherwise appropriate.

3.5.3 CHIEF JUDGE

- The Chief Judge is responsible for the results of any race that is not a time trial. The Chief Judge will use input from the assistant judges, but the ultimate decision is solely from the Chief Judge.
- The Chief Judge should use any photo finish equipment available in order to make the best possible decision regarding placement of riders.
- The Chief Judge will attempt to place as many competitors as possible in each race and insure that all results are compiled and presented to the Chief Referee.

3.5.4 ASSISTANT JUDGES

The Assistant Judges will work under the Chief Judge and provide any information the Chief Judge requests.

3.5.5 CHIEF TIMER

The Chief Timer will be responsible for the results of any time trial event. The Chief Timer and the Chief Judge may be a combined position.

3.5.6 ASSISTANT TIMERS

Assistant timers work under the direction of the Chief Timer. Assistant timers and judges may be combined positions.

3.5.7 STARTER

The starter is responsible for the start of the race. The starter's responsibilities may be assigned to other officials.

3.5.8 REGISTRAR

The Registrar will be responsible for overseeing the registering or riders, collection of entry and other rider fees and certifying the qualifications of the rider to compete in the fields for which they register.

4. FIELD LIMITS

THE RACING ORGANIZATION defines minimum and maximum field size and limits.

5. CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT

5.1. HELMETS

Every rider warming up or racing while at the race venue shall wear a protective, securely fastened helmet that satisfies at least one of the following helmet standards:
- US Department of Transportation (DOT)
- American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard Z90.4
- Snell Memorial Foundation Standard "B" or "N" series
- American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard F-1447
- Canadian Standards Association standard (CSA) CAN/CSA-D113.2-M
- US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)
- CEN European Standard
Riders shall show documentary proof of this, such as a manufacturer's label, upon request by race officials. It is the rider's responsibility to select and wear such a helmet that offers sufficient protection against head injury and does not restrict the rider's vision (disqualification for failure to wear such a helmet or for removing it during a race). The racing organization makes no warranties or representations regarding the protective adequacy or fitness for competition of any helmets. A rider, by entering an event conducted under these rules, agrees to hold the racing organization harmless from any and all claims arising from the use of any particular helmet. Wearing of the helmet is mandatory during training rides on competition courses.

5.2 CLOTHING

5.2.1 No article of clothing may be worn that serves solely an aerodynamic purpose.
5.2.2 All clothing and equipment will be in good repair and reasonably clean at the start.

5.3 EQUIPMENT

5.3.1 BICYCLES
5.3.1.1 Bicycles must be propelled by the rider's legs only. No stored propulsion mechanism is allowed.
5.3.1.2 Bicycles must be no more than 2 meters long and 75 cm wide. Tandems may be up to 3 meters long.
5.3.1.3 Nothing may be added to the basic bicycle to reduce air resistance. EXCEPTION: spoke covers may be used.
5.3.1.4 Fully enclosed or disc front wheels or spoke covers on front wheels are not allowed in mass start events.
5.3.1.5 The handlebars and stem will not present a danger. Handlebars that allow for support of the forearms may not be used in mass start events. Handlebar ends and extensions shall be plugged and must not have sharp or jagged ends.
5.4 Selection of equipment and clothing are solely the responsibility of the rider. THE RACING ORGANIZATION assumes no responsibility for safety or performance of any items selected by the rider. Each rider is responsible for proper maintenance of his/her clothing and equipment. The Chief Referee may disallow the start of any rider using equipment or clothing deemed dangerous or inadequate.

5.5 RULES SPECIFIC TO TRACK RACING

5.5.1 For mass start events:
- No mixing of freewheeled and fixed geared bikes.
- Handlebar ends that point up or forward or that allow for support of the forearm are not allowed.
5.5.2 For timed trialed events:
- A bicycle with shifting mechanism, brakes and freewheel may be used but gear shifting is not allowed during the race.
- Riders may use upturned or forward pointing handlebars or bars that provide support for the forearms (i.e. cow-horn, tri bars, etc.)

6. NUMBERS

6.1 Shall either be the numbers provided by THE RACING ORGANIZATION. Numbers from other races may not be used. Penalty or disqualification is at the discretion of the Race Official.
6.2 Numbers will be block figures and will be easily read at a distance. They will be black figures on a white background. Riders will place their numbers according to the instructions of the officials and/or race organizer.
6.3 No rider shall cut, fold, mutilate, trim or apply stickers to the race number, nor shall they sell, trade or give the issued number to another individual. Penalty or disqualification is at the discretion of the Race Official.
6.4 Unreadable numbers may not be placed.
6.5 The numbers shall be a minimum of 12 cm high on a minimum 20 cm by 20 cm background.

7. START OF A RACE

7.1 No race will start before the time stated in the race announcement unless every possible registered rider is present and agrees to the earlier start time.
7.2 It is the responsibility of each rider to be at the start line on time.
7.3 The start will be signaled by a single gunshot, whistle, flag, or verbal command.
7.4 The Starter alone determines the validity of the start. An honorary Starter may be requested by the organizer, but will have no official function except to give the start signal.
7.5 All riders will start in the same manner (with holders, with one foot on the ground, rolling start, etc.).
7.6 The starter may use a neutral lap to start the race if deemed necessary for safety or fairness.

8. FINISH OF A RACE

8.1 A rider finishes when the front tire first penetrates the imaginary vertical plane above the leading edge of the finish line. EXCEPTION: Events where a tape switch or other timing device is used.
8.2 The last lap is signaled by the ringing of a bell. A '1' will be displayed on the lap cards. If the bell is rung on the wrong lap, the Chief Referee will determine whether the finish will be on that lap or on the originally planned lap.
8.3 Once the first rider has finished, the Chief Referee may excuse any competitor from completing the entire distance if the result is a foregone conclusion.
8.4 The Chief Judge will compile the results as quickly as possible and ensure that a copy is posted for the riders to inspect.

9. RIDER CONDUCT

9.1 Riders are responsible for their own conduct, including arriving on time with the correct equipment. No rider shall benefit from his or her misconduct. No team shall benefit from its misconduct, or the misconduct of one of its members.
9.2 Misconduct may be punished at the discretion of the Chief Referee. The forms of misconduct include, but are not limited to:
- Unsportsmanlike conduct
- Theft
- Fraud (including falsifying information on an entry)
- Causing any race to have a result other than on the merits of the competitors
- Dangerous Riding
- Making an abrupt motion which interferes with the forward progress of another rider
- Using foul or abusive language or conduct toward any individual
- Pushing or holding another rider (whether on a different team or not) except in Madison where riders may only push their teammate.
- Failure to follow a referee's order
- Completing any part of the course without a bicycle. (It is not required to ride the bicycle the entire course.)
- Not maintaining equipment properly so that it is dangerous (i.e. insufficient glue on tires, etc.)
- Riding on a race course when not entered in an event in progress.
- Taking pace from a vehicle or from a rider in a different race
- Violating any of the Racing Rules

10. PROTESTS

10.1 All protests concerning order of finish will be resolved by the Chief Judge, whose decision is final and beyond appeal.
10.2 All protests concerning qualification of rider(s) or equipment will be resolved by the Chief Referee before the start of the race. The Chief Referee must make a decision before allowing the race to start.
10.3 Protests concerning incidents during the race will be presented to the Chief Referee in. They must be submitted within 15 minutes of the protester's finish. The Chief Referee will decide the results of the protest and communicate them to all parties involved.
10.4 The Chief Referee will keep the Chief Judge informed about any decision or pending decision that could affect the results.
10.5 Any protest about the order of finish must be lodged within 15 minutes of posting. In series races results may be protested until the end of sign in of the next race in the series. For the last race in series events and for all other races, if there are no protest within 15 minutes of posting the results will be considered final.
10.6 Prizes will not be distributed before 15 minutes after the final posting of results or before permission has been given to do so by the Chief Judge.

11. TRACK RACING

11.1 TRACK MARKINGS

All markings on the track should follow UCI Cycling Regulations.

11.2 RIDING CONDUCT

These rules apply to scratch, handicap, miss-and-out, Madison, and points races.
11.2.1 Leaders must occupy the sprinters lane unless far enough in the lead so as not to interfere with competitors seeking to pass. If the leader is below the sprinters line, the following riders may not pass underneath [relegation or disqualification].
11.2.3 A competitor overtaking another must pass on the outside unless the rider ahead is riding above the sprinters line. A rider who passes another must not in any way impede the progress of the passed rider [relegation or disqualification].
11.2.4 In the homestretch on the last lap, the leader(s) must ride a straight line parallel to the edge of the track [relegation or disqualification].
11.2.5 Blue Band. In all races it is permissible to ride below the measurement line, but never below the track surface on the blue band except during the slow part of a Match Sprint or during the Madison [relegation or disqualification].
11.2.6 When a rider has a crash that does not present a danger to the other riders, the race will not be neutralized. In case of a crash that causes a hazard to the other riders, the race may be neutralized by the starter. While the race is neutralized, all riders must ride slowly around the top of the track, maintaining their relative positions. Resumption of racing will be signaled by the starter when it becomes safe.
11.2.7 Riders who suffer a mishap may be assisted in restarting.
11.2.8 A rider shall be considered to have gained a lap upon reaching a position to take shelter behind the rearmost rider of the group.
11.2.9 Starts will generally be rolling starts. The official will signify the start of the race after riders are determined to be properly bunched so as to give no undue advantage or disadvantage to any rider. This signal shall be audible, generally a whistle.

11.3 TYPES OF COMPETITION

11.3.1 SCRATCH RACE

A scratch race is one in which all riders start from the same point at the same time. The race shall be run over a specified number of laps and the riders classified according to the order in which they cross the line on the final lap. If permitted by the Chief Referee, free laps up to a distance of 1100 meters may be taken in a case of a mishap. However, free laps may not be taken in the final kilometer of the race. Riders taking free laps may not return to the track in the final kilometer. Riders who suffer a mishap and do not return to the track will not be placed.

11.3.2 HANDICAP RACE

A handicap race is a race in which the stronger riders are given either a greater distance to travel or a later start so as to equalize competition. The starting positions or the time allowances must be announced to all participants before the start of the race. The official handicapper shall decide what distance or time allowance is to be granted to each competitor. The competitor must supply accurate information to the handicapper. Starts will be made on the track itself unless the banking is too steep for safety, in which case the competitors shall start on the blue band. If two or more riders are to start from the same point, they may be placed one after the other or side by side, whichever is safer. The holders may be allowed to run with their riders for a short distance at the start, provided this is clearly stated before the race. The starter shall be positioned so as to see all riders and may have an assistant with a flag to assist in observing a possible false start.

11.3.2 MISS-AND-OUT

A miss-and-out (sometimes called "devil take the hindmost") is a mass start race in which the last rider over the line on designated laps is eliminated from the race. Riders may be eliminated every lap, every other lap, or on whatever regular schedule is stipulated before the race. Gaining a lap shall not prevent a rider from being pulled nor matter in the final placings. The back edge of the rear tire determines who is the last rider over the line. The Chief Judge shall notify the last rider over the line. The rider shall withdraw with due caution as soon as it is practical. If a rider does not withdraw as instructed, the Chief Referee may call one or more free laps until the rider has retired. [A rider who blatantly disregards instructions to leave the field shall be subject to disqualification from the remaining events in the meet and possible suspension.] Riders suffering mishaps shall be eliminated. When fewer than 8 riders remain, riders suffering mishaps shall be placed ahead of riders already eliminated. Finish. The miss-and-out may be ridden to the last person or to a specified number of survivors. In the latter case, there may be a free lap followed by a conventional sprint, judged on the order of finish by the front wheels. The format to be used must be explained to all riders before the start of the race.

11.3.3 SPRINT

Track Sprints involve a series of races, each with a small number of riders. The number and composition of the races is organized by the Chief Referee to meet the needs of the racing program for the number of riders. The sprint rounds may be preceded by a flying start 200 meter time trial to seed or select riders who will take part in the sprint heats. Formats may include:
(a) Championship format - riders compete in qualifying and succeeding rounds in such a way that the fastest riders shall meet in the final race.
(b) Round robin format - each entrant competes against every other entrant. The winning rider of each pairing shall receive one point. The overall placings are determined by the number of points gained in all matches. If a rider does not complete the entire series of matches, then any points gained by or at the expense of that rider are canceled. In case of a tie, the tie will be broken in favor of the rider who:
(1) Scored the greatest number of points in the matches against the other tied riders; or,
(2) If still tied, has the highest placing in an additional sprint in which all riders who are still tied compete, or
(3) If still tied, wins a final match of the tied riders
(c) Exhibition sprints follow the format of championship sprints, but may vary in the number of competitors allowed in the qualifying and final rounds and in the distance of the sprints. Repechage rounds and the requirement that a rider lose twice before being eliminated may be omitted.
When rider seeding is based on a time trial, only bicycles that meet sprint standards shall be used.
Distance. Sprints are run over two laps on a track of 333.33 meters or greater or over three laps on a smaller track or as designated by the officials.
The starting position of each rider shall be decided by the drawing of lots. The rider drawing the inside position is obligated to lead at the start. Following the start, the leader may not perform a standstill for more than 30 seconds. If he or she does, the official shall require the rider initiating the standstill to continue the race. If the rider fails to continue, the starter shall stop the race, after a warning, and declare the other rider the winner of the heat. In a three or four-up race, the race shall be immediately rerun as a two or three-up race, without the relegated rider. A maximum of two standstills shall be permitted for each race. The rider on the inside of the track, unless overtaken, shall lead until reaching the pursuit line on the opposite side of the track or another point on the track as designated by the official before the start of the race. Should the race be run in two heats, each rider shall lead one heat. A further draw shall be made if a third and deciding heat proves necessary.
Stoppage. Once the start has been given and judged valid by the starter, the race shall not be stopped without a legitimate reason.
(a) During the slow part of the race, the starter may stop the race if a rider:
(1) Backs up more than 20 cm (8 inches) [1/4 wheel rotation with a 700c tire];
(2) Does a standstill on the blue band;
(3) Touches the track surface or the outside fence or railing;
(4) During a standstill touches an opponent or jumps his bike;
[The rider responsible shall lead the reride]
b) Should any rider suffer a mishap at any time during the race, a restart shall be signaled by the starter unless it is obvious that at the moment, the rider concerned had no chance to place. In a reride following a mishap, the starting positions of the riders are not changed.
(c) Should a race be stopped because of an apparent mishap that turns out to not be legitimate, the race shall be restarted without the rider at fault.
Before the sprint has begun riders may utilize the full width of the track, but must leave room on the right for riders to pass and avoid movements that could cause a collision, a fall, or force a rider off the track.
Once the sprint has begun (the riders are moving at full speed or near full speed):
(a)No rider may attempt to overtake an opponent using the blue band, either while passing or pulling out of a passing maneuver;
(b) The leader must always leave room on the right for other riders to pass. The leader is not obligated to leave room on the left, but may not enter the sprinters lane if it is occupied, except with a clear lead, and in no case may force an opponent off the track;
(c) If the leader is below the sprinters line, he or she must stay below the sprinters line until the finish and all following riders must pass on the right and outside the sprinters lane. However, the leader may come out of the sprinters lane if he or she is so far ahead that there is no hindrance to opponents;
d) If the leader is riding above the sprinters line, he or she shall make no abrupt motion to keep other riders from passing and may make no move to the right (whether abrupt or not) that could have caused a fall or that exceeds 90 cm. (same as the width of the sprinters lane). Following riders may pass on either side. The leader may move to the left into the sprinters lane only if the trailing edge of the leader's rear wheel is ahead of the leading edge of the front wheel of the following rider [relegation for foul riding]. There is no penalty at the finish if the lead rider accidentally drops below the measurement line or even onto the blue band.
Falls. A rider in a two-up sprint who intentionally causes another rider to fall shall be disqualified. A rider who falls while attempting an illegal maneuver shall be relegated. The wronged party shall be declared the winner without necessarily passing the finish line.
No-shows. If one rider in a two-up heat fails to appear, that rider loses the sprint and the other rider must put in an appearance on the starting line in order to be declared the winner, but need not cover the distance. The losing rider may compete in a subsequent ride.
Blocking. In a sprint with three or more contestants, a rider who is hemmed in at the bottom by other riders may not force his way out of the box, nor may a rider block or interfere with another rider [relegation or disqualification].
No rider may deliberately cause a crash disqualification]. Whenever such a situation is detected the race should be stopped, if not completed, and in any case shall be rerun without the rider responsible. In the case of an accidental collision before the sprint has begun, the race will be stopped by the starter and rerun with the original participants in the same starting positions.
In the case of a dead heat, the race will be rerun with only the riders who made the dead heat.

11.3.4 TANDEM SPRINT

Tandem sprint events on the track shall be run in accordance with sprint regulations except that:
(a) Tandem sprints shall be run over the integral number of laps nearest to 1300 meters for the particular track;
(b)In no case shall more than four tandems be raced together, or three on tracks smaller than 333 meters
(c)When flying start time trials are used to seed riders, the timing distance shall be either the complete length of the track or 400 meters, whichever is less.

11.3.5 KEIRIN

A Keirin is a race in which riders sprint after completing a certain number of laps behind a pacer. The race shall be run over the integral number of laps nearest to 2000 meters for the particular track. No more than nine riders may compete in a Keirin. If the number of entrants warrants, there may be qualification and/or repechage rounds leading to a final race. Normally the pacer rides a derny or motorized pacing bicycle; a tandem may be used when practicable. Sprint Rules Apply. Except as provided below, rules regarding track sprint riding shall apply to the Keirin.
(a) The starting positions of the riders shall be determined by drawing lots. The riders shall be placed side by side on the pursuit line with the sprinters lane being left free. The riders shall be held by assistants. The start shall be given when the pacer approaches the pursuit line in the sprinters lane. Unless another rider assumes the responsibility, the rider who drew #1 may be required to follow the wheel of the pacer for at least the first lap, failing which the starter shall stop the race and the rider will be eliminated. The rider who drew #2 shall lead after the restart.
(b) The pacer shall ride on the measurement line, starting at 25 kph (13 mph) and shall gradually increase speed to 45 kph (28 mph). He shall leave the track when ordered to do so by the starter, in principle 600-700
meters before the finish.
(c) In the case of a mishap in the first half lap, the race shall be stopped (immediate restart).
(d)If the leading edge of the front wheel of any rider's bicycle draws even with the back edge of the pacer's rear wheel while the pacer is still on the track, the rider shall be disqualified.
(e) The race will be stopped in the event of illegal behavior by one or more riders while behind the
pacer. The race shall be rerun without the rider(s) at fault.
(f) Any other restarts are at the discretion of the Chief Referee.

11.3.6 TIME TRIAL

Riders are timed over a fixed distance and compete one at a time. Starts may be either flying or standing, as specified. If a session is interrupted, all competitors must ride in a subsequent session. In flying start events, two laps are permitted on tracks 333 m or less in length before timing starts.
Standing Start Events. The rider shall be held by an official at the start and shall be neither restrained nor pushed. The starter shall insure that each rider starts within the sprinters lane, with the leading edge of the front wheel directly over the starting line and the bicycle not pointed up or down the track.
Restarts. In case of an apparent mishap, the officials shall immediately determine the cause. If the mishap is verified, the rider is entitled to a delayed restart, which will be made after the next five riders have started. If there are not five riders remaining, the restart shall be after 10 minutes [any rider who intentionally causes a mishap shall be disqualified]. In the case of a false start or unverified mishap the rider restarts immediately. A rider is permitted at most, one restart in any given round.
Should two or more riders make the same time, they shall be placed equally.
The blue band shall be made impractical for riding by the placement of sponges 50 cm by 8 cm by 8 cm in the turns at 5 meter intervals 20 cm below the lower edge of the measurement line. [No penalty for riding on sponges, disqualification for riding below the sponges.]

11.3.7 INDIVIDUAL PURSUIT

Individual Pursuit is a time trialed race between competitors who are started at equal intervals around the track, and is run until one rider catches the others or until a certain distance is covered, as specified in advance. A rider catches another by overtaking and drawing even.
Race format - At a minimum there will be a single ride and racers will be ranked by time. There may be further rounds at the discretion of the race organizer. The format for the organization of pursuit rounds shall be clearly explained to the riders prior to the race, preferable posted or in writing.
Timing - Both riders will be timed at half-laps throughout the race.
Coach - One person only may indicate a rider's position in relation to the other rider. That person may occupy a position before or after the rider's finish line, but shall not make any rash gestures of encouragement.
Recovery Interval - A rider may not participate in more than two pursuit matches on the same day except in unavoidable circumstances, which shall be decided by the Chief Referee. A minimum interval of two hours must be allowed between rides.
Equipment.
(a) There shall be separate lap cards and a bell for each rider.
(b) A red disc shall be placed in the home straight and a green disc in the back straight exactly at the starting points of each rider. There shall be conspicuous markers 30 meters ahead of the starting point of each rider.
(c) A single green flag and a single red flag may mark the first kilometer of each rider respectively. A double green flag and a double red flag may mark the last kilometer of each rider respectively. These discs and flags permit the starter to determine the location of the rider for the purpose of calling restarts.
Starts.
(a) The two riders shall be positioned to start on the inside of the track diametrically opposite each other.
(b) The start shall be by gunshot or start tones. The starter and assistant starter shall be in the center of the track. The riders shall be held by officials and neither restrained nor pushed. The same two officials shall hold all riders if possible. The referees located at each starting point shall insure that all riders start in exactly the same manner, with the front part of their front wheel directly over the starting line and the bicycle not pointed up or down the track. The referee puts up a flag when the rider is ready.
(c) The starter within the first 30 meters shall call a false start should either rider move forward before the gun is fired or if either rider is pushed.
(d) After the qualifying round, the rider with the faster time in the preceding round shall be started so as to finish in the home straight.
Mishaps.
(a) The officials must immediately determine the cause for stoppage and whether or not a legitimate mishap has occurred.
(b)Qualifying round: If either rider has a mishap, the other rider shall continue the time trial. The rider suffering the mishap shall ride at the end of the qualifying round, either alone or against another rider who has suffered a mishap.
(c) Quarterfinal, semifinal, or final: If either rider has a mishap in the first kilometer, the race will be stopped and entirely rerun. If a mishap occurs after the first kilometer but before the last, the race will be stopped and restarted with both riders positioned relative to the last half-lap lines they crossed; the race leader will be on the line and the other rider a distance back of the line equivalent to the gap in seconds, given by:
B = (G x L) / (2 x T) where;
B = Distance back of the half-lap line for the slower rider;
G = Gap in seconds between the time of the faster and slower rider
at the last completed half-lap;
L = Length of one lap of the track;
T = Time of the slower rider in completing the last half-lap.
If either rider suffers a mishap in the last kilometer, the starter shall stop the race and the times at the preceding half-lap shall be used to decide the winner. Should the lead rider have a mishap in the last kilometer of the quarterfinals, this rider's average speed will be used to calculate a time to allow a fair placement in the semifinal, where the formula for the corrected time is:
C = L x R / D where;
C = Corrected time for the lead rider;
L = Time of the lead rider up to the last completed half-lap;
R = Total distance of the race;
D = Completed distance up to the last half-lap.
Finish.
(a) Quarterfinal: A rider who catches the other must complete the distance to record a time so as to be properly placed in the semifinal. The rider who was caught is eliminated.
(b) Semifinal or Final: If one rider passes the other, the starter shall signal the end of the race.
(c) In all rounds, if neither rider catches the other, then a single gunshot may be fired when the first rider finishes and another fired when the second rider finishes.
(d) If both riders have the same time at the finish, the riders shall be placed according to the faster lap time nearest the finish.
(e) Qualifying rounds: If a rider is caught both riders complete the distance for time.

11.3.8 TEAM PURSUIT

Pursuit teams are made up of two or more riders. The rules for a particular event must be explained to all participants before the start, preferably posted or in writing. The explanation must specify how many riders must finish and on which finisher the time is taken.

Italian pursuit is a race between teams of any number of riders over a specified distance. The teams are spaced at equal intervals around the track at the start. The leading rider of each team shall lead for one or two laps, as specified, then pull off. The second rider shall then take the lead for the same number of laps and also stop. The same procedure shall be followed until there is only one rider on the track per team during the last one or two laps. The team whose last rider is farthest ahead as compared to the team's starting position, wins.

Championship team pursuit.
Teams shall have three or four riders per team and cover a distance of 4,000 meters. There may be up to six riders entered for each team but a racing team of no more than four riders may compete in a given session. Timing is taken from the front wheel of the third rider. Both teams will be timed at full laps throughout the race.

Coach. Only one person may indicate a team's position in relation to the other team. That person may occupy a position before or after the finish line, but shall not make any rash gestures of encouragement.

Recovery Interval. A team should not participate in more than two pursuit matches on the same day except in unavoidable circumstances as determined by the Chief Referee. A minimum of two hours should be allowed between rides.

The organization of various rounds in team pursuit shall be included in the explanation of the event.

The equipment used for team pursuit shall be the same as for individual pursuit except that the red and green flags, which mark the first and last kilometer, are not needed.

Start.
(a) The two teams shall be positioned to start on the inside of the track diametrically opposite each other. After the qualifying round, the team with the faster time in the preceding round shall be started so as to finish in the home straight.
(b) Each team must start in the same fashion. This may be either of two ways:
(1) All four riders on the line with one meter between them or;
(2) Only the first rider on the line and the others at a 45 degree angle back of the first rider with one meter between them.
(c) The start shall be by gunshot or start tones. The starter and assistant starter shall be in the center of the track. The teams shall be held by officials and neither restrained nor pushed. The same officials shall hold all riders if possible. The officials located at each starting point shall insure that all riders are lined up properly at the start and that the front part of the front wheel of the first rider is directly over the starting line and that no other rider is ahead of the first. All bicycles must be lined up straight and not pointed up or down the track.
(d) A false start shall be signaled within the first 30 meters if any rider moves forward before the gun is fired or is pushed, or if any rider other than the one on the inside takes the lead before the 30 meter mark.
(e)Each team is allowed two rerides only for false starts. Therefore, a team is entitled to only three starts.

Mishaps.
(a) The officials must immediately determine the cause of any stoppage and whether or not a legitimate mishap has occurred.
(b) Should an apparent mishap affecting only one rider not prove legitimate, that rider shall be eliminated and only the remaining three riders allowed in the reride.
(c) Qualifying Round. If one rider on a team has a mishap at any time, the team may decide either to stop or continue to ride one person short. If the team decides to stop, they must make their intention known within one lap after the mishap. If the team continues to ride and finishes one rider short, the resulting time will be used to place them in the next round. If more than one rider on a team has a mishap, the team shall stop and ride again at the end of the qualifying round, either alone or against another team that has also had a mishap.
(d) Quarterfinal, Semifinal, or Final Rounds. If any rider has a mishap in the first half lap, the race will be stopped and restarted by the starter. If one rider on either team has a mishap after the first half lap, the other three riders must continue. If more than one rider on either team has a mishap after the first half lap, the starter shall stop the race and the other team shall be declared the winner.

Finish.
(a) In the qualifying round, if one team catches the other, both shall continue and record a time for the distance.
(b) In the quarterfinal, if one team catches the other, it shall continue to record a time so that it can be properly placed in the semifinal. The team that was caught is eliminated.
(c) In the semifinal and final, if one team catches the other, the starter shall stop the race. A team is considered to have caught another team when the third rider draws even with the third rider of the overtaken team.
(d) In all rounds, if one team does not catch the other, then a single gunshot may be fired when the first team finishes the specified distance and another shot when the second team finishes. The team is considered to have finished when the third rider crosses the line.
(e) If both teams have the same time at the finish, the teams shall be placed according to the faster lap times nearest the finish. Three riders must complete the distance or the team cannot be classified.
No Pushing. The members of a team shall not be allowed to push one another [disqualification in the qualifying round and relegation to the next lower place in subsequent rounds].

11.3.9 TEAM SPRINT

Team Sprint is a race run over laps of a track by teams of riders, each of whom shall lead for one lap. The number of riders per team (and total laps) shall be specified; generally the number of riders will be three for men and two for women. The event may be organized into qualifying heats leading to a final. The qualifying heats select the four best teams on the basis of their times. In the finals, the teams with the two best times ride off for first and second and the others ride off for third and fourth. In three lap events there may be four riders entered for each team but a racing team of no more than three of those riders may compete in a given session.

Starts
(a) In the finals, the team with the best time shall start in the home straight.
(b) The composition of a team may be modified from one round to another but an incomplete team (less than one riders per lap) may not start.
(c) If any member of a team starts before the pistol shot a false start shall be called.
Successive Pulls
(a) The leading rider shall move toward the outside of the track after one lap and then drop back and leave the track without hindering the other team.
(b) The next rider shall lead the following lap and then shall drop out in the same manner.
(c) The last rider shall complete the last lap alone.
(d) The lead rider must relinquish the lead no more than 13 meters before or after the end of the lap that rider is to lead. (A rider relinquishes the lead by moving up the track and out of the way of the next rider by at least 1 meter.)
(e) No rider may push or pull another rider. [Relegation to last place for violation of any of these rules.]

Mishaps
In case of a mishap or false start, the team may try again at the end of the heats and the other team continues. However, if the mishap occurs after 30 meters and before the end of the second lap, the team may choose to continue. In the event of a second mishap or false start no restart is allowed.

Finish.
The team whose final rider crosses the line first shall be the winner. In case of a tie, the team with the best time on the final lap shall win. All timings are based on the lead rider.

11.3.10 POINTS RACE

A points race is a rolling start scratch race in which sprints for points are held on certain laps as designated by the official. For standard points races this is usually every five laps, or every 2 km. For standard Points races in each sprint, the first four riders shall normally be awarded points in order of finish as follows: 5 points, 3 points, 2 points, 1 point. The number of points may be doubled on the final sprint or on intermediate sprints as designated by the official. Any rider who gains a lap on the main field will receive 20 points. Any rider who loses a lap to the main field will lose 20 points. Other variations of arranging sprint laps and awarding points may be used in other types of points races, such as Progressive Points, Point-A-Lap, etc. In all cases the highest points are awarded to the riders finishing ahead, i.e. there may be no disincentive points. The arrangement and timing of the sprints will be explained to the riders verbally at the start and/or in writing prior to the race. The main group is the largest group on the track. If two or more groups are the same size, the leading group shall be the main group.

Gaining Laps.
(a) A rider shall be considered to have lapped the main group upon reaching a position to take shelter behind the main group. (A rider or group of riders shall be considered to have taken shelter behind the main group when the distance between the last rider in the main group and the first rider of the overtaking group is less than 5 meters.) (b) Riders who break away continue to score points until they have lapped the main group. Once they have lapped the main group, they must sprint with this group to score additional points, even if they catch the group during a sprint lap.
(c) If the riders are strung out so that no main group exists, the Chief Referee shall determine when a rider or group of riders has passed enough riders to be credited with having gained a lap.
(d)Riders attempting to gain a lap may not accept assistance from riders who have lost contact with the back of the field. Riders attempting to gain a lap may work together, but no sacrifice of a rider's position to the advantage of another rider shall be allowed [loss of points or laps that have been illegally gained].

Losing Laps.
(a) Riders who lose laps may sprint for points only after being absorbed by the main group prior to the beginning of the sprint lap. A rider may be considered to be absorbed when caught by the lead rider in the main group. Riders may win points regardless of how many laps they have lost.
(b)A rider who gains a lap and then loses contact does not lose the lap until absorbed by the main group.
(c) Riders who fall two or more laps behind and are considered to be out of contention may be withdrawn at the discretion of the Chief Referee.

Free Laps
(a) In case of mishap, the rider involved shall be given one or more free laps totaling nearest to 1100 meters per mishap.
(b) Free laps may not be taken in the final 5 laps of the race. Riders taking a free lap may not return to the track in the final kilometer.
(c) To be eligible to score points in a sprint following a rider's mishap, the rider must have rejoined the group they were previously a part of before they start the sprint lap.

Finish.
(a) A points race ends when the leader completes the required distance or the designated time has elapsed. All other riders will finish on the same lap as the leader. Riders who have mishaps and who are prevented from returning to the track in the last kilometer shall retain the points and laps that they had at the time of the mishap relative to the main group. Other riders who fail to complete the race shall not be placed.
(b). Points determine the final placings of riders when riders are tied on points, the order of finish in the final sprint shall be used to break the tie. Tied riders who cannot be placed in the final sprint are placed according to the number of first places in sprints. If still tied, then the number of second places in sprints shall decide.
Stoppage.
If rain or any other circumstance forces the race to be stopped after two-thirds of the distance has been covered, the results shall be final at the point of stoppage. Otherwise, the race shall be rerun according to the instructions of the Chief Referee.

11.3.11 MADISON

A Madison is a points race between teams of two or three riders who relay each other for a specified distance or time. In no case may more than two members of a team race at the same time. Sprints for points shall be held in the same manner as a points race. Generally sprints will be every 5 minutes or an integral number of laps nearest to 4 kilometers. Lap cards shall be displayed counting laps down each lap at least 5 laps preceding sprints. The number of points normally is doubled on the last sprint. The arrangement and timing of the sprints will be explained to the riders verbally at the start and/or in writing prior to the race. Gaining and losing laps and final placings of teams in a Madison race are determined in the same way as for riders in a points race. At the start of the race, one rider from each team will be on the line and the other rider(s) will be on relief. A rolling start will be used.

Relieving Partners.
(a) A rider entering the track from the blue band shall do so on the home straight or back straight and must not interfere with riders already on the track. A rider leaving the track should stop on the blue band in one of the straights, but never on turns.
b) In order to make a change from racing rider to relief rider, a rider must draw even with the teammate. The relay may be made by touching, pushing, pulling, or by merely drawing even with the partner. Handslings may be allowed if so specified by the Chief Referee.
(c) A relay without the partners drawing even (a wireless pickup may result in a team being penalized a lap.)
(d) In relieving, the members of a team must not interfere with other competitors. The relieved rider must stay on the inside of the track or continue in a straight line from wherever the exchange was made until all other riders in that group have passed safely. When the track is clear, the relieved rider may move up the track and proceed slowly until time for the next exchange. If there are special regulations on where the riders must stay, they must be explained clearly to the riders before the race.
(e) Exchanges shall be made as low as possible on the track. Following riders will be expected to ride over exchanging riders. [Relegation, points penalty or laps penalty, disqualification.]

Mishaps.
Should one of the riders suffer a mishap, his teammate shall immediately take the team position and continue to race without relief until his teammate returns. If both riders suffer mishaps, the team shall be entitled to free laps equal to the number of laps nearest 1000 meters. On returning to the race, a member of the team shall resume the position the team occupied before the mishap. Teams taking free laps may not return to the track in the final kilometer. There shall be no free laps taken in the final 2000 meters of the race; a team entitled to free laps at that point or prevented from returning to the track in the final kilometer shall be placed according to the laps and points held at the time of the mishap.

Reteaming.
(a) A rider who loses a partner through retirement or mishap may be teamed with another rider who has lost a partner. Such reteaming shall be done at the discretion of the Chief Referee.
(b) In combining the remnants of two teams, the lower lap count and points score of the two teams shall be used. Should the reconstructed team be tied with another team, they shall be placed behind that team.

Finish
The race ends when the leading team completes the required distance or the designated time has elapsed. All other teams will finish on the same lap as the leader. An audible signal, generally a whistle, is given after all riders have completed the final lap.